NET Framework NET is a general-purpose development platform for any kind of app or workload, providing key capabilities for building high-quality apps including automatic memory management and support for modern programming languages.
The .NET Framework (pronounced as “dot net”) is a proprietary software framework developed by Microsoft that runs primarily on Microsoft Windows. It was the predominant implementation of the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) until being superseded by the cross-platform .NET project.
It includes a large class library called Framework Class Library (FCL) and provides language interoperability (each language can use code written in other languages) across several programming languages. Programs written for
.NET Framework execute in a software environment (in contrast to a hardware environment) named the Common Language Runtime (CLR).
The CLR is an application virtual machine that provides services such as security, memory management, and exception handling. As such, computer code written using .NET Framework is called “managed code”
. FCL and CLR together constitute the .NET Framework.
FCL provides the user interface, data access, database connectivity, cryptography, web application development, numeric algorithms, and network communications.
Programmers produce software by combining their source code with
.NET Framework and other libraries. The framework is intended to be used by most new applications created for the Windows platform. Microsoft also produces an integrated development environment for .NET software called Visual Studio.
.NET Framework began as proprietary software, although the firm worked to standardize the software stack almost immediately, even before its first release.
Despite the standardization efforts, developers, mainly those in the free and open-source software communities, expressed their unease with the selected terms and the prospects of any free and open-source implementation, especially regarding software patents. Since then, Microsoft has changed
.NET development to more closely follow a contemporary model of a community-developed software project, including issuing an update to its patent promising to address the concerns
In April 2019, Microsoft released .NET Framework 4.8, the last version of the framework as a proprietary offering. Only monthly security and reliability bug fixes to that version have been released since then.
No further changes to that version are planned.
In August 2000, Microsoft, and Intel worked to standardize Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) and C#. By December 2001, both were ratified Ecma International (ECMA) standardsInternational Organization for Standardization (ISO) followed in April 2003.
The current version of ISO standards are ISO/IEC 23271:2012 and ISO/IEC 23270:2006
While Microsoft and their partners hold patents for CLI and C#, ECMA and ISO require that all patents essential to implementation be made available under “reasonable and non-discriminatory terms”.
The firms agreed to meet these terms, and to make the patents available royalty-free.
However, this did not apply for the part of .NET Framework not covered by ECMA-ISO standards, which included Windows Forms, ADO.NET, and ASP.NET. Patents that Microsoft holds in these areas may have deterred non-Microsoft implementations of the full framework.
On October 3, 2007, Microsoft announced that the source code for .NET Framework 3.5 libraries was to become available under the Microsoft Reference Source License (Ms-RSL
The source code repository became available online on January 16, 2008 and included BCL, ASP.NET, ADO.NET, Windows Forms, WPF, and XML. Scott Guthrie of Microsoft promised that LINQ, WCF, and WF libraries were being added
The .NET Compact Framework and .NET Micro Framework variants of the
.NET Framework provided support for other Microsoft platforms such as Windows Mobile, Windows CE and other resource-constrained embedded devices. Silverlight provided support for web browsers via plug-ins.
In November 2014, Microsoft also produced an update to its patent grants, which further extends the scope beyond its prior pledges. Prior projects like Mono existed in a legal grey area because Microsoft’s earlier grants applied only to the technology in “covered specifications”, including strictly the 4th editions each of ECMA-334 and ECMA-335.
The new patent promise, however, places no ceiling on the specification version, and even extends to any
.NET runtime technologies documented on MSDN that have not been formally specified by the ECMA group, if a project chooses to implement them. This allows Mono and other projects to maintain feature parity with modern
.NET features that have been introduced since the 4th edition was published without being at risk of patent litigation over the implementation of those features.
The new grant does maintain the restriction that any implementation must maintain minimum compliance with the mandatory parts of the CLI specification.
- published date : 2022
- version : 4.8
- format : zip
- password: soft360
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